The case of personal interest. It expresses the indirect object.

The Dative of Indirect Object

This use is closest to the root idea of personal interest. The one from whom or in whose interest an act is done is indicated.

The Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage

This use is very similar to the Dative of Indirect Object. The personal interest expressed by the indirect object is intensified. The Dative of Advantage indicates the person for whose benefit something is done. The Dative of Disadvantage indicates the person who will be adversely affected as the result of the action. “Against” will often be used in this translation of the Dative of Disadvantage, “for” the Dative of Advantage and “to” the indirect object. This is sometimes referred to as the “Ethical Dative”.

Dative of Possession

Personal interest is particularized to the point of ownership. There is no exact equivalent in English.

The Dative of Reference

The idea of personal interest is reduced to mere reference. This use deals mostly with things, though occasionally it may deal with people. it may be rendered “in the interest of,” “with reference to,” “concerning.” or “about.”

The Dative with Nouns

The Dative is used with nouns only where personal interest is expressed.

The Dative of Adjectives

When used with adjective, the Dative has the personal flavor just like it does with nouns.

The Dative with Prepositions and Adverbs

The Dative with prepositions and adverbs is rare in the N.T.

The Dative with Verbs

The Dative is most frequently used with verbs. The idea of personal interest is clear with many verbs.

The Dative with Intransitive Verbs 

Does not require an object.

This is a special application of the Dative with Reference.

The Dative as the Direct Object (With Transitive Verbs)

The Dative case is often used as the direct object of transitive verbs (requires an object) which express personal relations. The verb is close to the Dative idea. Therefore, they take their direct object in the Dative rather than in the Accusative case.

The Dative Because of Preposition

Compound verbs often have the Dative where the simple verb does not. This use of the Dative is due to the total idea of the compound verb.

The Dative with Infinitive

This construction expresses purpose.

The Dative of Place

This use does not occur very often in the N.T. it indicates place.