The case of limitation or extension.

The Accusative of Direct Object

The most common use of the Accusative is as the object of a transitive verb (a verb whose action passes over to the noun). This use is also described as the Accusative with Transitive Verbs.

The Adverbial Accusative

In this use, the Accusative limits in an indirect way. It functions as an adverbial modifier. It modifies a verb rather than serving as a direct object. It is sometimes referred to as “the Accusative of General Reference.” This is not very common in the N.T. except in the case of the pure adverb.

The Adverbial Accusative of Measure

This use tells how far when describing the extent of space. When describing the extent of time, it tells how long.

The Adverbial Accusative of Manner

The word in the Accusative indicates how the action of the verb takes place. It answers the question “how?”.

The Adverbial Accusative of Reference

The word in the Accusative indicates what the action of the verb refers to by answering the question “with reference to what?” This use also includes the Accusative of General Reference, i.e. a word in the Accusative used much like a subject with an infinitive.

The Cognate Accusative

In this usage, the verb and its object are derived from the same root. It is used sometimes for emphasis. Basically, it repeats and explains more fully the idea expressed by the verb.

The Double Accusative

Some verbs require two objects to complete their meaning. This use is really an expansion of the Accusative of Direct Object from one object to two objects. Sometimes it may even use three Accusatives.

The Double Accusative with a Personal and Impersonal Object

This is sometimes referred to as the Accusative of the person or of the thing.

The Double Accusative and a Direct and Predicate Object

This use is really sort of an apposition. Some call it an “object compliment” because it completed the meaning of the object and specifies the same person or thing as the object. Sometimes είς  will occur with the predicate object.

The Double Accusative with Verb

The double Accusative occurs with verbs of clothing, unclothing, anointing, saying, etc. It also occurs with causative verbs. Also included here is the so called “Accusative of Oaths”.

The Accusative Absolute

A noun or pronoun in the Accusative is accompanied by a participle in the Accusative. These are disconnected from the sentence. This has been described as the Accusative of General Reference with the participle agreeing with it. Compare the Genitive Absolute.